nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница

“We haven’t heard from them,” Dick said, exasperated. “We missed a whole night.”

“You haven’t heard a thing?”

“Nothing,” he said.was a bad start to a bad day. I assumed that the Fed still hadn’t satisfied Ken Lewis on BofA’s capital issue, so I followed up with Tim and Ben. Less than an hour later, Lehman pre-released its third-quarter results—a $3.9 billion loss, stemming from a $5.6 billion write-down on residential and commercial real estate. The firm also announced that it would sell a majority stake in its asset-management subsidiary, Neuberger Berman, and nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница spin off between $25 billion and $30 billion of its commercial real estate portfolio. were having none of it. Lehman’s shares fell in premarket trading, while its CDS jumped to 577 basis points. The market smelled a corpse. as I wondered whether Bank of America would come through, another possible partner for Lehman popped into view, taking me by surprise. Bob Steel—my former undersecretary for domestic finance, now CEO of Wachovia—called just before 8:00 a.m. to say that he’d spoken with Bob Diamond, the president of Barclays, the British bank. The two bankers knew each other from nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница Steel’s stint on Barclays’s board a few years before. told me that Barclays was interested in Lehman. I admit I had to ask him if they were serious. The British bank had not previously demonstrated an ability to move fast or to consummate major strategic transactions. Barclays was still stinging from losing a takeover battle in 2007 for the Dutch bank ABN AMRO to the Royal Bank of Scotland. I also had some concerns about whether Barclays had the financial strength to do a Lehman deal. I mentioned Barclays’s potential interest in my discussions that day nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница with Tim, Ben, Chris, and the group in New York, we were focused on Bank of America. Lewis had promised to get back to us by Thursday evening if there were no leaks. We understood that the Charlotte bank might well decide against buying Lehman or insist, despite my guidance to Lewis, that it would need financial support. my afternoon conference call with Tim and Treasury staffers, we again discussed how we could help Lehman. My team and I believed we should emphasize publicly that there could be no government money for a Lehman deal. To my mind, this was the nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница only way to get the best price from a buyer, and the only way to prepare the industry to be fully ready for the likelihood that it would need to participate in any solution.

“We need to do everything we can to fashion a private-sector alternative,” I told the group.agreed. He, too, favored an industry solution. But we both knew that if a Bear Stearns–style rescue was the only option, we would take it. As Tim put it, a Lehman failure would be more expensive for the taxpayers. of us were well aware that nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница after Fannie and Freddie, the country, Congress, and both parties were fed up with bailouts. Obama and McCain, neck and neck in the national polls, each spoke out against them on the campaign trail. The previous day, in fact, McCain and Sarah Palin had published an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal entitled, “We’ll Protect Taxpayers from More Bailouts.” And just before our conference call had begun I’d spoken with Chris Dodd, who told me, “Fuld is a friend. Try to help, but don’t bail Lehman out.” discussed the worst-case scenario: no buyer for Lehman nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница, no government authority to inject capital, and no legal authority to wind down a failing nonbanking financial institution. We knew a Lehman collapse would be a disaster. With roughly $600 billion in assets, the firm was bigger and even more interconnected than Bear Stearns. Under those circumstances, how could we stabilize the market? the conference call, Tim and I spoke privately, reviewing the situation: Neither of us had the authority to put money in the entity Lehman hoped to create to hive off its commercial real estate assets—unofficially known as Spinco. And clearly, the embedded losses were proving to be too nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница big for Lehman to attract private capital. It was unlikely that a restructuring plan could help the firm now. three days after the historic government takeover, the GSEs were already old news to the public. We hadn’t taken our eyes off them, however. Mortgage rates had decreased, but they were still too high, given that the GSEs were now officially under the U.S.’s wing. , I continued to reach out to unhappy GSE employees. Wednesday afternoon I met with Fannie Mae staff at their Wisconsin Avenue headquarters, just a little ways from the National nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница Cathedral. I encountered an even tougher group than I had at Freddie’s headquarters: they pushed back harder, upset about the losses on their shares, and worried about Fannie’s long-term prospects. I answered their questions candidly, explaining how crucial their company would be to helping get the nation through this crisis, but the sight of their unhappy faces stayed with me after I left. evening, when I checked in with Ken Lewis, I learned that he had not yet sent a team to New York. He still hadn’t resolved his issues with the Fed. But he assured nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница me that BofA would be able to move quickly, given that they’d done due diligence on Lehman in the summer. called Tim to see when the Fed would clear up the problem with BofA. He assured me he would immediately work to find a solution.Thursday morning, not long after I arrived at my desk, Ken Wilson suggested I call Bob Diamond at Barclays. The British bank needed more encouragement. When I reached him, he confirmed that his bank was interested in acquiring Lehman.



“You’ll need to move quickly,” I told him. “I also want to let you know nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница that we are unable to put public money in.”

“I understand that.”asked him if Barclays’s board and its CEO, John Varley, were in agreement with him about a possible Lehman deal. British boards, I knew from experience, played a more active role in takeovers than did their counterparts in the U.S.

“They are,” Bob said. “This is obviously a major undertaking.”suggested that he talk further with Varley and his board, while I touched base with Tim Geithner, whom I immediately updated.

“Diamond is clearly interested,” I said. “Barclays doesn’t have much of a nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница history of completing acquisitions, but I think we should move ahead here pretty aggressively.” needed to act fast—and not just for Lehman’s sake. Market worries were spilling over to other institutions. Shares of Washington Mutual, the troubled Seattle mortgage lender, were being battered. Tim and I agreed that, for the industry to be part of the solution, we needed to get all of Wall Street together quickly. I suggested that we set the meeting for Friday night, because we needed a deal by Sunday night. John Thain called later that morning to tell me that Merrill’s stock nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница was off significantly and its credit spreads were widening. He volunteered to participate in an industry solution for Lehman, and I told him that we planned to get a group together in New York over the weekend. stepped away from Lehman long enough to place more than 20 calls to members of Congress, briefing them on the GSEs and problems in the financial markets. They generally supported our action on the GSEs, but they gave me an earful about bailouts and—as Chris Dodd had done the previous day—warned me that they didn’t want to see taxpayer money nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница put into Lehman. touched base again with Bob Diamond, who confirmed that Barclays was serious and that Varley wanted to talk directly to me. He noted that Barclays’s board was keen not to be embarrassed, as they would be if word leaked out that they were an interested bidder and someone else did the deal.

“We’re looking for an exclusive,” I remember him saying. “If we get one, we can move very quickly.”

“We can’t give you an exclusive, and I don’t believe Lehman Brothers can, either,” I replied. Barclays hadn’t asked for nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница assistance in doing a deal, and because I assumed Ken Lewis would, I knew this would give the British bank a leg up. “I believe that if you move quickly, the odds are very high that you will be successful. I can assure you that the Fed and I will work together to make this happen.” emphasized that because the government couldn’t put money into the transaction, Barclays should focus on Lehman’s troubled assets so we could discuss realistically how they could get a deal done. I recommended that he call Dick Fuld right away and arrange to nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница get together. Lewis called a little after 5:00 p.m. He said that the capital issue had been more or less settled with the Fed; Ben Bernanke had assured him that the Fed would try to resolve the problem. But that was the extent of any good news.

“We took a hard look at Lehman Brothers, and there are a number of assets we’re uncomfortable with,” he said. “I’m sorry to tell you we won’t be able to do this deal.” wouldn’t let him off the hook. “If you had help with the bad nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница assets, would you be willing to proceed?”

“You said there would be no government money,” he pointed out. “Have you changed your position?”

“No, we haven’t. But I expect that if you made an acceptable offer, we could get others in the industry to help finance the part that you weren’t going to take. It would be just like the LTCM consortium.” had watched the Fed assist JPMorgan in acquiring Bear Stearns, so it was only natural that he would try to get whatever help he could—from the government or the private sector. He agreed nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница to put together a proposal and get back to me, and I said I would approach Wall Street firms to work something out. I told him we needed a deal finalized by Sunday, so I wanted his preliminary thoughts by Friday night. that buyers were circling Lehman helped prop up the market. The Dow had ended the day up nearly 165 points, at 11,434. Even WaMu gained, closing at a dismal $2.83, up from $2.32 the previous day, but its CDS had blown out to a breathtaking 2,838 basis points from 2,267. Lehman did not benefit from the market rally: its shares fell 42 percent, to $4.22. Merrill’s shares nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница dropped almost 17 percent, to $19.43, their lowest level in nearly a decade. night my team got on a conference call with the New York Fed, the Washington Fed, and the SEC. There must have been between 30 and 40 people on the line, all with one concern: getting Lehman to the weekend. took us through a quick review of the unsettled market. One New York Fed staffer noted that Lehman’s funding was increasingly problematic. JPMorgan had renewed a week-old $5 billion collateral call that day. It felt like Bear Stearns all over again, with a critical difference: There were much bigger nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница concerns about the losses in Lehman’s balance sheet. Many were worried that all the bad news coming out would lead banks to begin to pull their funding. Lehman borrowed $230 billion overnight in the repo market—an extraordinary reliance on short-term funding that could be pulled at a moment’s notice. Lehman could easily become the victim of a run triggered by a widespread loss of confidence. Chris Cox said that the SEC staff was making contingency plans for a Lehman bankruptcy. reminded the group that we had two potential buyers for Lehman. Bank of nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница America was further along, but there was a significant amount of assets they were unwilling to take.

“I’ve heard from Lewis, and he wants to pass on this if there is no help, but I believe he’ll come back with a proposal,” I said. I added that Barclays seemed more interested in Lehman. , realizing that I was speaking to a large group, I again emphasized that there would be no public assistance for a Lehman bailout and that we would be looking to the private sector to help the buyer complete the acquisition. My team at Treasury nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница believed that we needed to publicly stress these two points, to prepare the industry for the likelihood it would have to help us. The New York Fed would be inviting Wall Street CEOs to a meeting, and we didn’t want them to arrive thinking that we would be there waving a government checkbook. Even if by Sunday we had to resort to a government rescue, we needed on Friday to put as much pressure as possible on the private sector to help out. Thursday evening, Michele Davis told reporters off the record that there would be no government money nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница for Lehman, hoping that our stance would become clear in Friday’s papers. Michele wanted to lay the groundwork for what we all hoped would be a deal that would see Lehman bought that weekend. arrived at the office at 7:00 a.m., suitcase in hand, prepared to spend the weekend in New York. We had to get through one more trading day until then, and it was shaping up to be a brutal one. Lehman’s credit spreads remained wide, while Merrill Lynch, WaMu, and AIG also were getting hammered. at the papers that morning, I realized that our nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница communications strategy hadn’t worked out as planned. Although a front-page story by David Cho, Heather Landy, and Neil Irwin in the Washington Post said, “The government is looking for an agreement that would not involve public money,” I knew that few people on Wall Street paid attention to the Washington paper. Their more likely news sources, the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, left the door open. So Michele quickly went to CNBC to reiterate that there would be no public money. At 9:15 a.m. CNBC’s Steve Liesman reported that, according to a person familiar nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница with my thinking, “there will be no government money in the resolution of this situation.” had my Friday morning breakfast with Ben Bernanke in the small conference room just off my office. He was not going up to New York but would stay in close touch. I said I was hopeful but had serious doubts about both Bank of America and Barclays. But I didn’t think any other institution had an interest or we would have heard about it. and I ran over our options for what to do if Lehman failed, but the tough fact was, we didn nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница’t have many. As I knew all too well, and as Ben reminded me, if Lehman filed for bankruptcy, we would lose control of the process, and we wouldn’t have much flexibility to minimize market stress.

“We can only hope that if Lehman goes, the market will have had a lot of time to prepare for it,” he said.morning I went back and forth with Tim and Ken Lewis, encouraging Ken to make an offer. Meantime, we were still waiting to hear back from Barclays. Tim expressed concern about my public stand on government aid: he nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница said that if we ended up having to help a Lehman buyer, I would lose credibility. But I was willing to say “no government assistance” to help us get a deal. If we had to reverse ourselves over the weekend, so be it. the early afternoon, I received a call from Alistair Darling, the U.K.’s chancellor of the Exchequer, with whom I had a good working relationship and who shared my views on the markets. I considered Alistair a straight shooter, and I gave him a candid update on Lehman.

“I understand one of your nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница possible buyers is a British bank,” I remember him saying. “I want you to know that we have some concern, because our banks are already under a lot of stress. We don’t want them to become overextended and further weakened.” I commented to Jim Wilkinson that Alistair seemed to be telling me that the British didn’t want their banks to catch the American disease. But because he couched this as a general concern, I didn’t see his words as the red flag that in retrospect they appear to have been. left for New York shortly before 3:00 p.m., with nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница Dan Jester, Jim Wilkinson, and Christal West in tow, amid a grim downshift in the markets. The Dow ticked down just 12 points, but Lehman shares had declined another 13.5 percent, to $3.65. AIG’s shares dropped 31 percent for the day, ending at $12.14, and were off 46 percent for the week. I realized that I now had one more institution to put on our watch. route to the airport, I took a call from New York senator Chuck Schumer, who offered his views on Lehman. “We had better find a buyer who’s not going to fire a lot of nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница people,” he said. “It would be better to have a domestic buyer than a foreign buyer.” wondered if Fuld, who preferred BofA, had put Schumer up to this call, but there was no question that the senator cared deeply about his state. He pointedly told me that JPMorgan’s purchase of Bear Stearns had cost New York jobs. had suggested I phone Ken Lewis to see just how serious he was. He felt, as I did, that Bank of America was drifting away. I spoke briefly with Lewis while I was on board the flight. He was trying to outline nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница the rudiments of a proposal, but our connection was poor in the stormy weather, and I agreed to call back once we were on the ground. thought glumly of the challenge before us. This crisis was far greater than what we’d faced with LTCM, a decade before, almost to the day. And the circumstances were more ominous than when we saved Bear Stearns in March. The financial system, and the global economy, were in much weaker shape. plane touched down a little before 5:00 p.m., and I jumped into a waiting car, accompanied by Dan, Jim, and Christal. As we nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница made our way slowly into Manhattan I got back on the phone with BofA. Lewis laid out a tentative but complex proposal. He said his people had figured that Lehman had a capital hole of about $20 billion. For BofA to buy the investment bank, it would have to leave behind $40 billion of assets. The North Carolina bank would split the first $2 billion in losses with the U.S., 49 percent to BofA and 51 percent to the government. The U.S. would have to absorb 100 percent of all other losses on the assets left behind. In return, as nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница a modest sweetener, BofA would give the government warrants to buy its shares. I reminded him that there would be no government money but that we were bringing together a private-sector consortium, and we agreed to meet in New York to discuss the matter further. Jester followed up with a phone call to BofA’s Greg Curl to get more details. I listened to snippets of the conversation and watched Dan’s unenthusiastic reaction to what he was hearing. I had suspected that Lewis didn’t really want to buy Lehman, but I had hoped that if he believed he could nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница get some help, he might try to pick it up on the cheap. Dan hung up, he shook his head. BofA had only wanted to talk about Lehman’s bad assets and the size of the valuation hole.

“It’s a positive sign that they’ve come in with the outline of an offer,” I told him. “But it sure doesn’t sound like they really want this.”

“They don’t,” Dan agreed. “But do we have anything better?”we slowly made our way through the heavy rain and traffic to the New York Fed’s headquarters on nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница Liberty Street in Lower Manhattan, I checked in with Tim. He said Barclays was having trouble getting access to all the information they wanted as quickly as they needed. I wasn’t completely surprised; when I had first told Dick Fuld about Barclays’s interest he had been hesitant—he clearly preferred BofA as a buyer. thought we should press Fuld on helping Barclays. We got hold of Dick and relayed our concern. We also outlined BofA’s proposal. Dick said he didn’t understand why BofA needed any assistance. He was still clinging to his belief in the nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница value of his assets, but he was alone there, a point underscored by a subsequent conversation I had with Varley and Diamond. The Barclays executives were encouraging, but they had one important qualifier.

“We’ve been focusing on the most problematic assets, and we may need some help with the funding,” Varley said.reported that he’d spoken with Barclays’s board as well as the bank’s regulator, the U.K.’s Financial Services Authority (FSA), and he believed a deal could be made. him again that we would not embarrass his bank, I told him we wanted his nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница best bid right away. “Your team needs to work through the night doing due diligence,” I said. “We need as much specificity as soon as possible.” in the decade before the Great Crash of 1929, the New York Federal Reserve is a Renaissance Revival fortress with iron-barred windows, hunkered amid the skyscrapers of Wall Street. Its 14 stories of offices sit atop what is said to be the biggest pile of gold in the world. I’d walked its corridors many times in my career, but never before with such a sense of urgency. had called the nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница meeting for 6:00 p.m., but it didn’t begin until closer to 7:00 p.m., because of the bad traffic. The weather, the delay, and the market conditions contributed to a gloomy atmosphere. , Chris, and I met upstairs on the 13th floor, where Tim had taken up temporary residence while the Fed’s 10th-floor executive offices were being renovated. We quickly went through our order of presentation, then rode the elevator down to a first-floor conference room where the meeting was being held. We took our seats at a long table, where Wall Street’s most prominent CEOs nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница sat waiting for us. Among them were Jamie Dimon from JPMorgan, John Mack from Morgan Stanley, Lloyd Blankfein from Goldman Sachs, Vikram Pandit from Citigroup, John Thain from Merrill Lynch, Brady Dougan from Credit Suisse, and Robert Kelly from Bank of New York Mellon. was an extraordinary moment: These were the people who controlled Wall Street and global finance. They had fought for years, sometimes bitterly, to lead their institutions to the forefront of the business, and now they had gathered to save a rival—and their own skins. opened the meeting by noting the seriousness of the occasion and nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница the fragility of the markets. He said it was crucial for everyone to work together to save Lehman and to find a way to contain the damage if that could not be done. A failure would be catastrophic, and we couldn’t completely insulate the banks from the fallout. Tim had crafted his speech to get the CEOs focused, and when he handed the meeting over to me, I had their full attention. was straightforward: We all knew why we were there. Without their help, Lehman would not open for business on Monday, and the consequences for the markets—and nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница for everyone sitting around the table—would be dire. I explained that we had two potential buyers for Lehman; with no one from Bank of America or Barclays in the room, it was clear to everyone who the potential buyers were. stressed that a Lehman sale was possible but not probable. The industry had to find its own solution. Both bids had capital holes whose sizes were still unclear. What was clear, however, was that there could be no government money involved in any rescue. I knew that unless I explicitly said this, some of them might nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница think that Good Old Hank would come to the rescue. Chris Cox explained how the SEC had been planning to manage a bankruptcy, I concluded that we needed to work together to avert a Lehman failure—if we could fashion a deal—and to manage one if we couldn’t. said the Fed was considering many options to make liquidity available to the markets. And to help prevent the market from tightening even more, he encouraged the CEOs not to keep pulling back from one another. the questions flew: How much money did we expect the bankers to put in? Why nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница should they risk their capital? What difference would saving Lehman make, given the problems wracking the entire industry? the attendees knew how fraught the market was and that its problems went way beyond Lehman. By now, everyone knew that AIG was in trouble. The insurance giant’s problems had been all over the news that day. Apart from the dramatic plunge in its shares, Standard & Poor’s had warned that it might downgrade the company’s credit rating; this would force AIG to produce billions in additional collateral. Then what? What was the point of having the private sector nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница weaken itself further to save Lehman if someone else was going to need help afterward? when Pandit asked if the group was also going to talk about AIG, Tim said simply: “Let’s focus on Lehman.”went on to outline a plan for three main groups to work through potential outcomes for Lehman. One group would plan ways to minimize the repercussions of what Tim called the “lights out” scenario of a Lehman bankruptcy, focusing on Lehman’s vast skeins of derivatives, secured funding, and triparty repo transactions. A second set of firms would look into how the industry nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница might buy all of Lehman with the intention of liquidating it over time—an approach similar to what Wall Street had done in the 1998 LTCM bailout. A third group of firms would examine how to finance the part of Lehman that a prospective buyer didn’t want. the end, the meeting turned out to be much less contentious than I had feared. I could see that the CEOs weren’t all convinced that they would solve anything by risking their own capital. No doubt, they also questioned the government’s resolve in saying we wouldn’t put any taxpayer nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница money in. But it was also clear they had come to the meeting with a purpose: they were committed to working with us and wanted to find a solution that would avoid market chaos.

“Come back in the morning,” Tim told the CEOs. “And be prepared to do something.”9Saturday morning, Jim, Christal, and I, accompanied by my Secret Service detail, left the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in Midtown Manhattan, climbed into a car, and sped down a deserted Park Avenue, arriving at the New York Fed just after 7:00 a.m. It was quiet in the gray light and early nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница enough that the television crews had not yet set up. Though everything had been hush-hush the night before, the news of our meeting was all over the morning’s papers. By the time Dan Jester arrived a few minutes later, reporters had begun to swarm outside the building. rode the elevator up to the 13th floor, where Tim Geithner had arranged for me to work in an office borrowed from his Information Technology department, just down the hall from his own suite. I went straight to work and called Ken Lewis, who reported that after closer nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница inspection his people now believed that Lehman’s assets were in even worse shape than they had thought the previous evening—when they had said they wanted to leave $40 billion behind. I wasn’t surprised to hear Lewis put forward a new obstacle: it was increasingly obvious that he didn’t really want to buy Lehman. Nonetheless, we arranged for his team to come over to brief me later that morning. joined Tim in his office for a conference call with Barclays at about 8:00 a.m. Bank chairman Marcus Agius and CEO John Varley were on the line from London nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница, and Bob Diamond was at Barclays’s Midtown Manhattan offices. Varley said they were working hard on a possible deal but needed to hear that Tim and I were serious. Barclays did not want to be used as a decoy. Varley said he had serious concerns about some of Lehman’s assets and indicated that Barclays would need to leave $52 billion of them behind. In addition to the problematic commercial mortgages, the list of dubious holdings included undeveloped land and Chrysler bonds that hadn’t been marked down. told Varley to focus on the biggest problems first—the nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница assets he thought were going to be the most troubled—and tell us what he needed to take care of them. If Barclays gave us its best offer that day, we believed we could deliver a private-sector consortium that would fund whatever shortfall there was. Even as we spoke, I explained, the leaders of virtually the entire banking industry were assembling downstairs at the Fed. The Barclays bankers said they would keep working, and I ended the call encouraged that Lehman might have found its buyer. were scheduled to meet the Wall Street CEOs in the first-floor conference room at nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница 9:00 a.m., but just before then Dick Fuld called. I briefed him on my unpromising conversation with Lewis and told him that it was more important than ever that he work with Barclays. He expressed great disappointment, bordering on disbelief, at BofA’s findings. He wanted to know more, but I had to cut him off to get to the meeting. the CEOs for the second time in 12 hours, I tried to be totally open. I knew I had to give them crucial information as soon as I received it so that we could all quickly make nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница informed judgments. I told them that Barclays appeared to be the most likely buyer for Lehman. I added that we had a meeting scheduled with BofA for later that morning, but I didn’t dwell on the prospects of a deal with the U.S. bank, and it must have been clear to the group that those talks weren’t going anywhere. I emphasized that we couldn’t do anything without their help.

“We’re working hard on a transaction, and we need to know where you guys stand,” I said. “If there’s a capital hole, the nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница government can’t fill it. So how do we get this done?” can only imagine what was going through their minds. These were smart, tough businessmen, and they were in a difficult spot. We were asking them to rescue one competitor by helping to finance its sale to yet another competitor. But they had no idea of the true state of Lehman’s books or how much they would have to cough up to support such a deal. Without this information, they were flying blind: they couldn’t possibly predict the consequences of any course of action they chose nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница. They knew how important it was to maintain a smoothly functioning market and how much we needed them to keep lending to one another if Lehman did go down. But their own institutions were all under grave pressure, and they had no idea what tests they might face in the days ahead—or whether they would be strong enough to survive this crisis. a group, the CEOs were nonetheless working hard to agree on a plan, but there was, understandably, some pushback. John Mack wanted to know why the government couldn’t arrange another assisted transaction, like the Bear Stearns rescue. quickly nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница dismissed the possibility. “It’s not a feasible option,” he said. “We need to put another plan in place.” He made clear that the Fed could not lend against Lehman’s dubious assets but asserted that it wasn’t the government’s place to dictate the terms of any deal. three groups that Tim had organized to examine Lehman scenarios had worked through the night and reported on their progress. Citi, Merrill Lynch, and Morgan Stanley had been looking into an LTCM-type rescue, but that approach faded quickly as an option because it was impractical to nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница liquidate Lehman without incurring huge losses, given the poor quality of its assets. team looking into how the industry might assist an independent buyer had spawned a series of subgroups to, among other things, scour Lehman’s books, identifying and valuing its toxic assets, and devise a deal structure that would allow an industry consortium to finance the purchase of, and absorb the losses on, those assets. Credit Suisse and Goldman Sachs led the way on valuing Lehman’s dubious real estate (Goldman had taken a look at the portfolio on its own earlier in the week). Credit Suisse’s nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница Brady Dougan reported that private-equity assets carried by Lehman at $11 billion were worth around $10 billion, while real estate assets carried at $41 billion were more accurately valued at between $17 billion and $20 billion. ’s report wasn’t a complete surprise, given the Street’s doubts about Lehman’s health, but it was shocking nevertheless. There was a more than $20 billion difference between what Lehman said its assets were worth and their true value. The CEOs were left wondering how their firms could fill a hole that size and what other bad assets—and losses—they would be asked to take. their nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница background as major custodian banks, JPMorgan and Bank of New York Mellon had led the way on the “lights out” scenario. Noting the frailty of the market, and especially of the banks’ funding sources, Bob Kelly of Bank of New York Mellon remarked: “We have to figure out how to organize ourselves and how to do something, because we’re toast if we let this thing go,” he said. reiterated the severity of the situation. “I’m just going to say bluntly that you need to help finance a competitor or deal with the reality of a Lehman nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница failure,” I told them.

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Документ nonf_biographyM. Paulsonthe Brink: Inside the Race to Stop the Collapse of the Global Financial SystemHank Paulson, the former CEO of Goldman Sachs, was appointed in 2006 to become the nation's next 10 страница